Plain Language Summary
To curb religious intolerance, this study investigated several socio-economic variables affecting the individual-level religious intolerance in Indonesia. It found out that the rapid rise of income inequality and the increasing trend of Islamic conservatism were among the most robust variables of religious intolerance. Meanwhile, higher individual income and educational attainment were positively correlated with the tolerance level of different faith. On the other hand, a higher level of self-declared religiosity was negatively correlated with a tolerant attitude. Panel data from 2007 and 2014 of more than 20,000 adult individuals were analyzed using fixed-effect regression analysis. The scope of this study can be expanded by assessing the causation of religious intolerance based on the reported socio-economic variables.
Religious tensions and violence have risen globally over the last decade. It has been reported that Indonesia is one of the top five populous countries with the highest levels of religious freedom restriction. Furthermore, according to several micro-level surveys, religious intolerance among Indonesians has also been on the rise. To address such an alarming state, this study was conducted to identify the socio-economic variables affecting religious intolerance. Based on the results, the study also proposed several policies to be established so as to reduce religious intolerance in Indonesia.
The SDG Impact
In 2018, the Minority Rights Group International recorded that mass killings and other atrocities involving religious minorities have been increasing in many countries. By carrying out this study, policies can be made to overcome the socio-economic variables affecting religious intolerance. Such an effort is important to maintain harmony and safety among the Indonesians. Since the UN targets to significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere, these findings will help to achieve Goal 16: Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals.